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Brain Injury

  • What is a brain injury?  

    A brain injury affects a person physically, emotionally and/or behaviorally; and they come in two forms, traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury. These injuries can happen at any point in life – birth through adulthood – as a result of trauma or illness.

    A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur when the head suddenly and violently hits an object or when an object penetrates the skull and enters the brain. TBIs may include an open head wound and/or loss of consciousness. The leading causes of TBI include falls, unintentional blunt trauma, motor vehicle accidents, military attack or bomb blast and assault.

    A non-traumatic brain injury or an acquired brain injury, results from illness or a condition, and is not the result of external head trauma. The leading causes include: stroke, lack of oxygen (hypoxia), aneurysms or weakening of an artery wall, brain tumors, illnesses such as cancer, brain and other infections or inflammation. Non-traumatic brain injuries also have a direct impact on cells throughout the brain. Because they attack cellular structure, non-traumatic brain injuries have the ability to spread to other areas of the brain. Conversely, TBIs only affect localized or concentrated areas.

    What deficits or impairments are caused by a brain injury?

    The deficits and impairments caused by a brain injury depend on the extent and location of damage to the brain.

    Some common impairments from a brain injury include:

    • Paralysis or weakness on one side of the body
    • Spatial-perceptual deficits : inability to understand and interpret between self and other objects
    • Impaired balance
    • Changes in sensory perception
    • Agitation
    • Impaired vision in one or both eyes
    • Seizures
    • Difficulty swallowing
    • Personality changes
    • Confusion
    • Impaired attention and memory
    • Impaired comprehension related to language and math
    • Diminished understanding, expression and ability to perform language, reading and writing tasks

    What is brain injury rehabilitation?

    Brain injury rehabilitation is designed to help patients recover from their traumatic brain injury while maximize their participation in the community and increase their sense of well-being. At TriHealth Rehabilitation Hospital, patients benefit from a highly specialized program tailored to the specific needs of the patient. We utilize a multidisciplinary approach including medical, nursing, therapy, pharmacy and dietary services to address the complex needs of each patient. Our focus and expertise helps us to provide better care, resulting in improved outcomes and higher chance of return to community.

    Our therapists utilize neuromuscular and functional re-education techniques. These approaches use hands-on treatment and functionally based movement patterns, such as reaching in familiar patterns and using muscle groups together, to enhance the outcomes of individuals who have difficulty controlling their movement as a result of a brain injury.

    Our goal-directed approach helps each brain injury patient:

    • Maximize alertness and responsiveness
    • Develop new cognitive and behavioral strategies to compensate for deficits
    • Normalize the sleep-wake cycle
    • Improve physical function and mobility to enhance the skills needed to perform activities of daily living
    • Overcome the psychological and social problems that often interfere with the adjustment living independently at home, work and in the community

    Our approach:

    • Comprehensive medical supervision by a physiatrist, a physician who has expertise in the assessment and management of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders. Physiatrists supervising our brain injury patients, specialize in brain injury rehabilitation
    • Coordinated multidisciplinary rehabilitation team approach utilizing professional staff with expertise in caring for and treating individuals with brain injuries
    • Patient and family support and education
    • Individualized therapy and medication intervention to enhance cognition, reduce complications and maximize outcomes
    • Weekly multidisciplinary team conferences to provide clinical focus, evaluate and update the treatment plan